Kyoto`s weaknesses and the path to the Paris climate agreement More than just reducing emissions, the agreement introduced the clean development mechanism for carbon trading. This meant that countries that did not meet the reduction targets could “buy” the right to additional emissions from households in less polluting countries. They could also be offset by measures to combat climate change in developing countries. The alliance of small island states and least developed countries, whose economies and livelihoods are most affected by the negative effects of climate change, has taken the initiative to address losses and damage as a particular theme of the Paris Agreement.  However, developed countries were concerned that looking at the issue as a separate issue that goes beyond adaptation would create additional climate funding or imply legal responsibility for catastrophic climate events. All remaining parties to the agreement must present their new 2030 targets before the next major UN climate meeting, to be held in Glasgow, UK, in November 2021 (this year`s climate summit has been postponed due to the pandemic). To date, only 14 revised objectives have been proposed or presented. In addition, countries are working to reach “the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.
  How each country is on track to meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement can be tracked continuously online (via the Climate Action Tracker  and the climate clock). Although the United States played an important role in the development of the climate agreement, it will be the only one of the 200 parties to withdraw from the pact. Adaptation issues were at the forefront of the paris agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  The agreement commits all countries to reduce their emissions and cooperate to adapt to the effects of climate change and calls on countries to strengthen their commitments over time. The agreement provides developed countries with a means to assist developing countries in their mitigation and adaptation efforts, while establishing a framework for monitoring and reporting transparently on developing countries` climate goals.